The effects of hookah/waterpipe smoking on general health and the cardiovascular system
Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. This study examined the prevalence of non-smoking norms in England and their associations with motivation to stop smoking, quit attempts, and cessation. Data were from a representative cross-sectional survey of 1, adults combustible tobacco smokers. In conclusion, perceived descriptive non-smoking norms are not held by the majority of adults in England. Injunctive and personal non-smoking norms are prevalent among all adults but lower among smokers. There is some evidence that smokers — in particular, women — who endorse stronger non-smoking norms are more likely to be motivated to stop smoking and to make a quit attempt.
Aim out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Two of the most important factors so as to affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability en route for cope with situations causing relapse. We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants twelve current and twelve early smokers and eleven semi-structured interviews five current and six former smokers along with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking close. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods. Three main themes were identified: 1 motivations to abandon smoking, 2 reasons why smokers at time relapse, and 3 modes of quitting smoking.
Aim out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Add thanlung cancer deaths are projected en route for occur in the U. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would absolute among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U. A little more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying clause, lung cancers that occur in by no means smokers differ from those that appear in smokers in their molecular contour and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations best part the importance of defining the hereditary and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data arrange the clinical epidemiology of lung bane in never smokers, and the a number of environmental risk factors that population-based delve into has implicated in the etiology of these cancers.